Stamp duty is also known as documentary stamp tax. Governments around the world apply these taxes on a variety of legally registered documents. Governments have imposed stamp duty on the transfer of houses, buildings, copyrights, land, patents and securities. The stamp reserve tax (SDRT) was introduced in 1986 for agreements for the transfer of certain shares and other securities, but with relief for intermediaries such as market makers and large banks that are members of a qualified stock exchange.  The Property Tax on Stamp Duty (SDLT), a new real estate transfer tax derived from stamp duty, was introduced on 1 December 2003 for land and real estate transactions. The SDLT is not a stamp duty, but a form of self-assessed real estate transfer tax levied on “land transactions”. Swedish law imposes a stamp duty on title deeds amounting to 1.5% of the purchase value. In addition, a stamp duty of 2.0% is levied on new mortgage securities (“pantbrev”) for real estate. In the Republic of Ireland, stamp duty is levied on various items, including (but not limited to) credit cards, debit cards, debit cards, cheques, transfers of ownership and certain court documents. Stamp duty was once a progressive progressive tax, the more expensive the house, the higher the stamp duty rate. The peak rate increased slowly from 0.5% in 1882 to 3% in 1947, 5% in 1973, 6% in 1975 and 9% in 1997. Budget 2008 introduced a series of interest rate cuts. After 2011, stamp duty will be set at 1% for residential properties up to a maximum of €1 million and 2% on the balance. Non-residential real estate, buildings, insurance policies, goodwill for intangible commercial real estate are taxed at 2%. A lease for a property of any kind is taxed according to the rental period, 1% of the average annual rent or the market price, whichever is higher, if 35 years or less, 6% up to 100 years and 12% for a lease with a duration of more than 100 years. The considerations (duplicates) of the documents are taxed with a lower amount of € 12.50 or the tax on the original document. The value of stamp duty assets excludes VAT. Donations are taxed at market value.  Several exemptions, including gifts between close relatives and first-time home buyers, expired in 2010.  The transfer of shares and negotiable securities is taxed at 1% if it is greater than €1,000 or if it is a donation.
Bearer warrants are taxed at 3% of the value of the shares, and the issuance of (new) bearer warrants is prohibited as of June 1, 2015.  A temporary stamp duty was introduced in 1657 to finance the war with Sweden. It was made permanent in 1660 and remains in the Code of Law, although it has been substantially amended. Most stamp duties were abolished as of 1 January 2000 and this law only provides for stamp duties on insurance policies. Stamp duties on land registration have been renamed and transferred into a separate law, but remain essentially the same, i.e. 0.6% on deeds and 1.5% on secured loans against immovable property. According to Schedule 1 of the Hong Kong Stamp Duty Ordinance Cap.117 (SDO), stamp duty applies to certain legally binding documents divided into 4 heads: at the end of 2017, the UK government abolished stamp duty (SDLT) on homes up to £300,000 and stated that for properties up to £500,000, no stamp duty would be paid on the first £300,000. This led to significant reductions in stamp duty for 95% of first-time buyers, with 80% paying no stamp duty. And according to the UK government, that means savings of up to £5,000 for first-time buyers. Indian laws require the payment of stamp duty for a limited class of transaction documents. Overall, documents regarding rights and property rights require the payment of stamp duty. The central government requires stamp duty to be payable on several categories of transactional documents that focus primarily on securities under the Indian Stamp Act of 1899. In addition, stamp duty may be levied by the state government for other transactions depending on the country`s specific legislation. For example, the Stamp Duty Act of the State of Maharashtra is governed by the Maharashtra Stamp Act of 1958 (Bombay Act LX of 1958).  Contracting Parties are also required to provide all documents necessary for stamp duty. These documents include transfer instruments, deed of division, mortgage transfer, mortgage deed, certificates of sale, deeds of gift, lease, license agreement, deeds of lease, etc. .